This week my Technology-Based Learning Environments course mates and I are now in the process of finishing our instructional design documents based upon the feedback we received from our professor and our peer reviewer. We have been asked to study an instructional design model we are not familiar with and report on what we find. I researched a model known as the Morrison, Ross, and Kemp Design Model (or MRK). What originally attracted me to this model was mention of how useful it is to classroom teachers because it involves them in the process (Gustafson and Branch, 2001). In our courses, my course mates and I typically utilize the ADDIE model: analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate. While movement occurs both backwards and forwards through the ADDIE steps, the process occurs in order and eventually ends. The MRK model expands the ADDIE model into nine interrelated steps and forms them into a more circular process which does not have to be completed in a specific order (Akbulut, 2007).
As a teacher, I constantly reassess what I teach including how and with what materials. I also must adjust to the needs of my students each year and with each class or section. The MRK model is different from other instructional design models yet supports what I do because “it considers instruction from the perspective of the learners” and “puts a greater emphasis on how to manage an instructional design process” (Akbulut, 2007, p. 64). Speaking of the learners, the ADDIE model analyzes the learners’ needs as it identifies a necessity for a new instructional design. The MRK model subscribes to the idea that the instructional design will be used again and again but may need adjustments with each implementation based upon the learners’ characteristics. Another marked difference is that the ADDIE process often requires new resources to be created specific to the instructional need while the MRK process allows for the review and selection of materials which have already been created by other sources. As a teacher, rarely would I have created my own worksheets, reading passages, videos, or other instructional resources. Instead, I would have reviewed the resources and chosen which best conveyed the information. Because of these reasons, I feel I may have to keep this model close at hand for future reference.
It is important to understand that theoretical learning theories such as cognitivism and constructivism are different from instructional design models. Learning theories attempt to explain how the learner interacts with and acquires the content while instructional design models attempt to create a formalized process with which to create the content. Instructional design will identify and employ an appropriate learning theory as part of the process because ID models do not explain how learners learn. Also, learning theories are broad enough that may different instructional design models could be used. When considering what a client needs, this distinction is necessary because the design will often depend upon what and how the learners will learn.
Akbulut, Y. (2007). Implications of two well-known models for instructional designer in distance education: Dick-Carey versus Morrison-Ross-Kemp. The Turkish online journal of distance education, 8, 62-68.
Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2001). Survey of instructional development models ( 4th ed.). Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology.